29 March 2006

Old Questions of Mass Communication and Journalism

Below are the old questions of mass communication and journalism at masters level. I collected them from Ujjwal Acharya, United We Blog and Subharaj Shilpakar.

2059
Journalism I Paper (JMC 501)
(Mass Communication Theories)

Attempt any Three questions from Group A and four from Group B.

Group A (3x20=60) Long Answer Questions
1. Describe the range of mass communication theories in their social, intellectual and historical settings.
2. What do you understand by the Asian Perspective of the Communication Theory? Discuss.
3. There can be a number of different, often competing, media structures within the one and the same national media system. This diversity of media structures can be analyzed and understood on the basis of some principles. What are they? Describe.
4. Describe the distinctive features of media organizations in contradiction to other formal organizations.

Group B (4x10=40) Short Answer Questions
5. Distinguish a dominant paradigm from an alternative paradigm.
6. Discuss the four models of public communication. Clarify the definitions of mass communication.
7. What are the implications of globalization of culture for a country like Nepal?
8. Describe briefly the distinctive features of media economics.
9. What is the 'Spiral of Silence'?
10. Engwall has made significant contribution to the understanding of mass communicator's role in society. Explain succinctly.

2060
Journalism I Paper (JMC 501)
Mass Communication Theories

Group A (3x20=60) Long Answer Questions
1. The models of communication have developed through four stages. What are they? Describe and discuss their relevance to the respective times of their development.
2. Discuss some of the basic theories related to the phenomenon of inter-personal communication.
3. Show an acquaintance with some of the Asian-oriented communication theories. Does the search for Asian perspective on communication theories imply outright rejection of Western-oriented theories?
4. Which are the seven types of theories to explain the relations between media and society? Describe fully.

Group B (4x10=40) Short Answer Questions
5. Distinguish the Chicago School from the Frankfurt School in terms of the media sociology.
6. The performance of the press can be evaluated on the basis of normative theories. Explain.
7. What do you understand by audience activity?
8. 'Content is influenced by media organizational routines.' Explain.
9. Show in a diagrammatic form a typology of media effects in terms of time span and intentionality.
10. What role has been conceived of for communication in development theories? Describe fully.

2061
Journalism I Paper (JMC 501)
Mass Communication Theories

Group A (3x20=60) Long Answer Questions

1. Explain the significance of symbols in the process of structuring human reality.
2. Give an overview of the development of mass communication theories in the 20th century.
3. What are the issues relevant to the media cultural theory? Discuss giving pertinent examples.
4. Describe referring to the relevant models the type of rules, regulations and scrutiny that the media Institutes carry along with them according to their different characteristics.

Group B(4x10=40) Short Answer Questions
5. What is telematic Media?
6. Why Shannon’s Mathematical theory of communication is called the precursor of the Information Theory?
7. Write briefly about the four types of audience of media?
8. What are the approaches to the study of sociology of mass communication?
9. How do you distinguish long-term planned effect of media from their unplanned effect?
10. What is the theory of news diffusion?

2062
Journalism I Paper (JMC 501)
Mass Communication Theories

Group A (3x20=60) Long Answer Questions
1. What are the basic approaches to the study of media theories? Describe in terms of the types of perspectives.
2. Is there any need for Asian approaches to communication? Discuss.
3. The recent social and technological changes have undermined the traditional view of mass media communication, and so, communication scholars have suggested to consider alternative views of the process which would be more representative of new communication process or CMC. There is a set of four such models which sketch the process of telematic communication. Describe them briefly.
4. “Mass communication plays a part in the complex process of socialization especially in societies where the mass media are ubiquitous.” (Charles Wright) Why? Discuss.

Group B(4x10=40) Short Answer Questions
5. What is the main thesis of Democratic-Participant media theory?
6. What do you understand by public interest in mass media?
7. Audiences are formed by the sources at macro and micro levels. How?
8. ‘Media campaign effect’ is identifies as a planned short-term effect, but ‘events outcomes effect’ is an unplanned long-term effect. Why?
9. Distinguish the dominant paradigm from the alternative paradigm for mass communication theory.
10. Does media content reflect social reality or his influenced itself by
media-organizational routines? Discuss briefly.
2059
Journalism II Paper (JMC 502)
(Principles of Journalism)

Attempt any THREE questions from Group ‘A’ and FOUR from group ‘B’

Group A (3x15=45) Long Answer Questions
1. Critically examine the role of news contents in the Nepalese broadcast media.
2. How do you assess the growth of daily newspapers in Nepal?
3. Discuss the principles of media pluralism.
4. Evaluate the code of conduct developed by Press Council (Nepal) for journalists.

Group B (4x7.5=30) Short Answer Questions
5. What are the key principles of journalism?
6. How far have the Nepalese media been able to reach the people? Give examples.
7. Explain the role of newsreels.
8. Discuss the impact of documentary films as an information channel.
9. Examine the functioning of alternative media.
10. Write short notes on any TWO.
a. Vertical ownership b. Documentary films c. Press associations

2060
Journalism II Paper (JMC 502)
(Principles of Journalism)

Group A (3x15=45) Long Answer Questions

1. Discuss the role of news media in democratic participation of people.
2. Examine the financial investment climate for media houses in Nepal after 1990.
3. How do you assess the application of the basic principles of journalism in the Nepalese media?
4. Why is radio the most relevant media for Nepal?

Group B (4x7.5=30) Short Answer Questions
5. Explain media values in principle and practice.
6. What are the main stages of journalism’s growth in Nepal?
7. Discuss the impact of media on society.
8. How does media contribute to informing the public accuracy and fairly?
9. Examine the practice of development journalism in Nepal, with emphasis on illustrations and graphics.
10. Write short notes on any Two:
a. Cross-ownership b. Gate-keepers c. Newsreels.

2061
Journalism II Paper (JMC 502)
(Principles of Journalism)

Group A (3x15=45) Long Answer Questions

1. Discuss the factors that led to the late arrival of journalism in Nepal.
2. What are the main theories of modern journalism?
3. How has the restoration of multi-party democracy affected the growth and development of various news media in Nepal?
4. How do you assess the application of ‘ABC of journalism’ in the Nepalese media?

Group B (4x7.5=30) Short Answer Questions
5. Discuss the various stages of development of journalism in the world with special reference to Nepal.
6. What is development journalism?
7. Why is monopoly in media against the spirit of democracy? Give examples.
8. List and elaborate the various broadcast media and their presence in Nepal.
9. Examine the use and abuse of illustrations in news magazines.
10. Write short notes on any two:
a. Documentary Films. b. New sells in Nepal. c. Gate-keeping.


2062
Journalism II Paper (JMC 502)
(Principles of Journalism)

Group A (3x15=45) Long Answer Questions
1. Discuss media freedom, with special focus on licentiousness versus social responsibility.
2. How do you take the good ethical decisions? Describe in the light of ethical principles of journalism.
3. What is the dilemma of objectivity and subjectivity in journalism?
4. Why the use of photographs, graphics and other illustrative materials is given priority in a magazine?

Group B (4x7.5=30) Short Answer Questions
5. Media watch mechanism in Nepal.
6. Inclusiveness in media functioning and service.
7. What is gate-keeping and how it works in media?
8. Community and commercial radio.
9. Describe various types of lenses and their uses.
10. What is journalistic fairness?
2059
Journalism III Paper (JMC 503)
(History of Journalism and Mass Communication)

Attempt any THREE questions from Group ‘A’ and FOUR from group ‘B’

Group A (3x20=60) Long Answer Questions
1. Describe the role of local and community media in Nepal vis-à-vis the expansion of national news media with emphasis on their historical perspective.
2. What influence modern technologies are having on the future of publications industry from global historical perspective? Explain.
3. What do you understand by the term globalization of information? Describe it in the context of the emergence of global newspapers and television media.
4. Describe the scope and impact of magazine journalism in modern times.

Group B (4x10=40) Short Answer Questions
5. Write short notes on Hiereographics, frequency modulation, Cable TV, byte, cross media ownership.
6. Narrate briefly the impact of modern technologies on the development of book industry.
7. The constitution of Nepal provides specific guarantees to the freedom of the press. Discuss with emphasis on the history of development press freedom in Nepal.
8. Describe briefly the innovations in printing and its impact on the modernization of Nepalese newspaper industry.
9. Write briefly on the emergence of electronic newspapers in recent times.
10. What is Internet and what role it plays in the dissemination of information.


2060
Journalism III Paper (JMC 503)
History of Journalism and Mass Communication

Group A (3x20=60) Long Answer Questions
1. “The newspaper is at once a private enterprise struggling in a highly competitive economy and a quasi-public institution serving the needs of all citizens.” In the light of Ernest C Hynds’ remarks, explain in historical perspective how the social service role is reconciled with the compulsions of profit making in a publication enterprise?
2. Describe the evolution of books as a medium of communication and its impact on shaping modern societies.
3. Newspapers are waging a losing battle against the powerful electronic media. Critically examine the transition faced by world newspaper industry in an electronic era and narrate the changes they are undergoing in order to stay ahead in business.
4. Present a critical appraisal of the crisis faced by magazine publications in Nepal. Narrate their strength as well as weaknesses vis-à-vis the growing influence of broad-sheet daily newspaper.

Group B (4x10=40) Short Answer Questions
5. What is ‘Sanad’? Explain how it is related with the newspaper history of Nepal.
6. Write a note on the early form of writings during the beginning of early civilization.
7. Write short notes on the following:
Chiranjibi Poudyal, Sudha Sagar, Partisan Press, Tabloids and Morgue
8. How do you define copyrights as distinct from intellectual property rights?
9. Write a note on the emergence of FM radio stations in Nepal.
10. What do you know about digital communication? Explain with examples.


2061
Journalism III Paper (JMC 503)
History of Journalism and Mass Communication

Group A (3x20=60) Long Answer Questions
1. Describe the impact of communication revolution on the development of book industry with particular reference to Nepal.
2. Give a critical appraisal of the role of mass media as ‘gate-keepers’ of the society in the light of technological advancements.
3. Write an essay on the condition of news magazines and periodicals in Nepal as against the expansion of other media.
4. “Facts are sacred, comments are free.” Explain this maxim in the light of determination of ethical standards of news media.

Group B (4x10=40) Short Answer Questions
5. Narrate the provision of the constitution of Nepal that deals with Right to Information of citizens and Right to privacy.
6. Describe briefly the transformation of printing from letter press to computer technology.
7. Write short notes on:
a. syndicates b. two-step flow of communication c. wire services d. yellow journalism e. censorship.
8. Narrate the role news media can play in the containment of conflicts in South media.
9. What do you understand by the term “public access to information?” How can media be made effective instruments for enhancing public access?
10. Describe some of the problems faced by newspaper industry in Nepal vis-à-vis stiff competition from electronic media.


2062
Journalism III Paper (JMC 503)
History of Journalism and Mass Communication

Group A (3x20=60) Long Answer Questions
1. Discuss the history and development of FM Radio ion Nepal.
2. Discuss the history of printing in Nepal and development of print media (including book publishing), radio and television.
3. Write an essay on press freedoms in Nepal with specific references to constitutional and legal provisions and their implementation.
4. Describe the growth and development of media in Nepal after the restoration of democracy in Nepal in April 1990.

Group B (4x10=40) Short Answer Questions
5. Discuss the history and growth of television in Nepal.
6. ‘The development of FM Radio in Nepal is unique, especially in terms of the various institutional/organizational arrangements’. Discuss.
7. Critically analyze the statement, “The Internet may be the most democratic of all communication media but it may take a long time for developing countries to benefit from its use.” Why?
8. Discuss censorship in Nepal, with references to existing legal provisions and practice.
9. Discuss briefly the four distinct phases of the development of the newspaper in India starting with period beginning 1818 to 1947, when it became independent.
10. Write short notes on any TWO of the following:
a. The history of book publishing. b. The ‘penny paper/press’ and yellow journalism. c. The weekly Gorkhaptra
2059
Journalism IV Paper (JMC 504)
Research Methodology

Attempt any THREE questions from Group ‘A’ and FOUR from group ‘B’. Question no. 4 is compulsory.

Group A (3x20=60) Long Answer Questions

1. What is scientific social research? Explain the characteristics of a good research design.
2. Discuss the history of the development of the mass media research in Nepal with reference to the development urban-industrial society.
3. Describe with illustrations various types of communication research and their relevance for a country like Nepal.
4. Calculate the standard deviation about a media organizations variance in respect the age of reporters.
Age
20-30
30-40
40-50
50-60
60-70
70-80
80-90
No
3
6
13
15
4
6
3

Group B (4x10=40) Short Answer Questions
5. Critically analyze the explanatory studies and its importance in social research.
6. What do you understand by experimental and survey research?
7. Why sampling method may not be relevant in the communication effects research?
8. Explain the characteristics of the media support system research.
9. Write short notes on:
a. Questionnaires b. Didactical and methodological aids-meta plan
c. Case study method d. Skewness
10. Explain the relevancy of the histogram in the media research.

Journalism IV Paper (JMC 504)
Research Methodology, 2060

Group A (3x20=60) Long Answer Questions
1. Research can help better understand large social trends. Analyze whether you agree or disagree with the statement. Explain the elements of a sound research design.
2. Discuss the history of the development of the mass media research in Nepal with reference where relevant to the development of urban-industrial society in the west.
3. Discuss at least three data collection techniques used in social research and describe the situations where you would employ those techniques.
4. Calculate quartile deviation from the following data and analyze the impact.
Age of editors
20-29
30-39
40-49
50-59
60-69
70-79
No of editors
306
182
144
96
42
34

Group B (4x10=40) Short Answer Questions
5. Discuss sampling and its importance in the social research.
6. Analyze the long-term influence of the exposure to mass media exposure.
7. Write short notes on:
a. Research hypothesis
b. Content Analysis
c. Key Informant Interviews
d. Focus Group Discussion
8. What is survey? Discuss the characteristics of a good questionnaire.
9. What do you understand from the terms 'Social Construction of Meaning'?
10. What is the difference between regression and co-relation?

2061
Journalism IV Paper (JMC 504)
Research Methodology

Group A (3x20=60) Long Answer Questions

1. Why is applied research more important? How is media research related to this system.
2. Discuss the differences between theory and facts in research.
3. Define various types of sampling in research design. Why is random sampling
more practical to media research?
4. Calculate the standard deviation from the following age group of reporters
No. of editors
5
6
6
13
20
29
30
Age of editors
Below 20
20-25
25-30
30-35
35-40
40-45
Above 45

Group B (4x10=40) Short Answer Questions
5. Define and discuss survey method. Give examples.
6. What is content analysis?
7. Explain the techniques of data collection in research process.
8. What is observation method? Explain how using questionnaires is research and observation differ.
9. Why is a hypothesis important in research?
10. Discuss the characteristics of a good research interview.

2062
Journalism IV Paper (JMC 504)
Research Methodology

Group A (3x20=60) Long Answer Questions

1. What is a good research design? Explain with examples.
2. What are the differences between content analysis and public opinion research?
3. Discuss the problem of media and journalism research in Nepal?
4. Reporters o f different ages are working at a broadsheet daily. Rearrange, calculate and analyze the standard deviation from the following age group of the reporters
No. of reporters
0
9
6
13
20
29
3
Age of reporters
Below 15
15-20
50-60
40-50
30-40
20-30
60 to above

Group B (4x10=40) Short Answer Questions
5. Discuss the use of survey method in media studies.
6. What is participatory research? Discuss in brief.
7. Explain the techniques of data collection.
8. What is case study method? Discuss the characteristics of good interview.
9. Explain the validity and reliability of research.
10. What are the differences between regression and correlation?

2059
Journalism V Paper (JMC 505)
Global System and International Journalism

Attempt any THREE questions from Group ‘A’ and FOUR from group ‘B’

Group A (3x20=60) Long Answer Questions
1. What are the principles of developing journalism? What differentiates it from western journalism?
2. Disscuss the advantages, challenges and dangers of the Internet. What is the relation between traditional media and the Internet?
3. Is it necessary to deal with imbalance of international news flow? Discuss how journalists in South Asian countries can cope with it.
4. What are the priorities in selecting international news by media organizations?


Group B (4x10=40) Short Answer Questions
5. Describe the variety of forms of global mass communication.
6. What kind of services DR agency provides to a country, which sings a contract with it?
7. Are there any printed media, which can be called international? Why have some national newspapers international impacts despite sometimes limited circulation? Give an example.
8. Describe attempts to control free flow of news.
9. Write about media system of India or Pakistan or Sri Lanka.
10. Discuss any one of the three main news agencies in global communication.

2060
Journalism V Paper (JMC 505)
Global System and International Journalism


Group A (3x20=60) Long Answer Questions
1. Explain the origins of the idea of New World Information Order (NWIO). What are the functions of communication according to McBride Commission Report?
2. What are the limitations for journalists dealing with foreign news in developing countries? Discuss.
3. Write about some common features of media systems in SAARC countries.
4. What is the tendency in approach to international news by news organizations?

Group B (4x10=40) Short Answer Questions
5. Describe how modern technologies are changing traditional media.
6. What invention opened developing countries on global channels? What was the impact of this invention?
7. Describe one international radio service.
8. What do you understand by the saying that international news can have boomerang effect?
9. Discuss state-owned broadcast media beaming programmes in foreign languages.
10. What are the characteristics of major international news agencies?



2061
Journalism V Paper (JMC 505)
Global System and International Journalism

Group A (3x20=60) Long Answer Questions
1. Explain what CBC-periphery theory describes. Elaborate what consequence it has on international flow of information.
2. What are the limitations of different media in developing countries? Which medium is the most
3. Write about satellite TV in South Asia and discuss channels, popularity and its cultural impact.
4. Is there any scope of the control of flow of news about one’s own country abroad? Explain how it might be done.

Group B (4x10=40) Short Answer Questions
5. What are the predictions for the future of global communication?
6. What causes deformation of picture of reality given by media in international news?
7. Describe one global TV channel.
8. What does the ‘globalization of media mean’?
9. Compare two media systems in any two South Asian countries.
10. Write about international TV news agencies and their impact on international news. Give an example.


2062
Journalism V Paper (JMC 505)
Global System and International Journalism

Group A (3x20=60) Long Answer Questions
1. Do you agree that the Nepali press has been changing over years under the influence of the changing tendencies in foreign printed media? Justify your opinion and describe the relation between Nepali and foreign press.
2. How the political environment has interacted with the situation of media in India. Include the issues of accessibility, press freedom, status of journalists.
3. Is it possible to report bare facts? Is the journalist’s objectivism possible or is it only a myth? Where the news ends and the manipulation starts?
4. How the use of satellites for commercial broadcast changed international communities? What is the role of satellite TV channels and TV wholesales? Why it is said that television is in the centre of international communication. Discuss these issues and show your acquaintances with at least one international or regional TV network or channels.

Group B (4x10=40) Short Answer Questions
5. What are the provisions and restrictions of freedom of expression in South Asian countries?
6. Give the features of international radio-broadcasters and describe one radio station in detail.
7. Foreign journalists in South Asia in relation with local laws and authorities. What are the weak and strong points of their coverage?
8. What are the directions of news flow in contemporary world?
9. Describe principles of international advertising. Give an example of an international media campaign.
10. What is the New World Information and Communication Order? What institutions and people were involved in establishing it? What were the effects of establishing NWICO?

2 comments:

Mariea said...

Hi i want Question & Answers on Journalism & Mass communication

any old papers

Jason Norin said...

Mass communication have been around since the time of cavemen when they draw something on a rock. Up to this day, the scope of mass communication reaches even businesses as companies acquire their own 1800 Number for communication purposes.