27 October 2006

Blogging by King Gyanendra or Prachanda

By Harsha Man Maharjan

This idea grabbed my attention at Martin Chautari media discussion series on 26 October 2006. James Sharrock of School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) and Ujjwal Achrya of United We Blog(UWB) were pundits on the topic: Nepali Blogging Around February 1 and Now, there. Sharrock’s has to present an essay at SOAS. His presentation depends on this essay. Ujjwal shared his experience of blogging.
What grabbed my attention during the program was K.P. Dhungana, a bloger’s wishes. What if king Gyanendra blog to convince Nepali people that Nepal needs constitutional Monarch ? or Prachanda does blogging to share what happened inside Baluwatar during peace talks ? The idea sounds good.
Blog is an online dairy. It transforms into journalism if it has journalistic qualities: reporting, quotes as UWB, MeroSansar etc. In Nepal blogging flourished after Feb 1, 2005. There were some blogs before Feb 1. They were personal daries containing personal matters only. February 1 incident of Coup by King Gyanendra censored mass media in Nepal. Young journalists were on search for new avenue. They found blogging as a place where they can write which was unfit in their media. That means blogging took the form of journalism or news portal. People visited blogs to find alternative news and views.
K.P thinks what UWB or MeroSansar is doing is not blogging. Blogging needs blogger’s criticism on the subject of the blog. What Pratyoush Onta thinks is what UWB or MeroSansar is doing is blogging too. So is what K.P is doing.
But K.P’s idea of blogging by King Gyanendra or Pranchanda attract by attention. If Pranchanda blogs, will he write what happened during peace talks? Will he give full detail of the inside stories of the talks? Hope is slim. He will only post that does no harm to him. We know people wants to hide that pinch them. Ditto is the case with Gyanendra. Both will hide their mistakes under the pretext of public opinion. Yes people will get chance to comment on their blogs. Will both of them ready to do so ? Let’s hope.

26 September 2006

Recommendations of High Level Media Suggestions Commission on the State Media:The Ball is in the government’s Court

By Harsha Man Maharjan
The issue of reforming state media is in air. Media related organizations like Federation of Nepalese Journalists (FNJ), Press Chautari etc demanded this after April revolution 2006.
FNJ recommended the government to make the Gorkhaptra Sasthan (GP) a public print media, not a private one. About Radio Nepal (RN) and Nepal Television (NTV), it recommends passing a charter by the Parliament for these media like Britain did for BBC radio and tv. This will bring Radio Nepal and NTV under the parliament instead of the Prime Minister and Minister of Information as it is now.
The High Level Media Recommendation Commission 2006 (HLMRC) has recommended the government to privative the GP, make Radio Nepal and NTV public broadcasting services loyal to people . About National New Agency (RSS) it recommends to be loyal to people.
7 September 2006 statement of the International Press Freedom and Freedom of Expression Mission to Nepal says all political parties show their support to reform these media. It recommends “privatization, transformation into public broadcasting service media or some other means” for this.
This is a good news for a Nepali. Yet, can we believe in what these parties say? Will the government do as the recommendations of the HLMRC 2006? I see less hope.
The issue of reforming the state media came in past too. Two press commissions during the Panchayat period recommended this to the governments. Enacting its recommendation was a democratic practice. How could these undemocratic governments do the democratic job? The governments gave no fig to the issue.
Even democratic governments after 1990 toed the line of Panchayat governments. The recommendations of media-reform task forces on this issue never came in practice. Like the Panchayat governments, the democratic governments misused the state media by disseminated only praises about them.
The Press Commission 1957 under the chair of Krishna Prasad Chapagain recommended stopping Gorkhapatra. People were unhappy at that time for what Gorkhapatra did before and after the 1950 revolution against them. Instead, the commission demanded a national news agency. About the agency, the commission requested the government to finance it for few years and made it sovereign after that. It warned the government not to make the agency “a means of propaganda”. The government never closed Gorkhaptra nor left RSS sovereign.
To make semi-government set-up of the GP and RSS, the Panchayat government enacted Gorkhapatra Corporation Act 2019 v.s and RSS Act 2019 v.s. Gorkhapatra Corporation Act 2019 v.s. made a provision of floating certain percentage of shares to its staff and the general people. The Act mandated 50 %, 25% and 25 % of the share to the government, its staff and general people respectively. Governments showed no courage to this.
Even RSS Act 2019 v.s. made provisions of 25%, 25% and 50% of its share for the government, its staff and general people respectively. However, governments never flouted the shares to its staffs and general people, and held it tightly.
The Royal Press Commission 1957 recommended the royal government to release its hold from the state media. Neither the royal governments of the Panchayat period nor the other governments after 1990 revolution did this.
This issue again came after the 1990 revolution. People at that time hoped for no government interfere in these media in future. So, the Prime Minister of Interim Government, Krishna Prasad Bhattarai’s speech saying, “No democratic government owns media”, during a program in the Gorkhapatra Corporation was a solace to people. Political parties like Nepal Communist Party of Nepal (CPN), Nepali Congress etc had included the issue of reforming the state media in general election 1991.
The Congress government after that election accelerated the process of privatizing the government-owned corporations through different models. The Gorkhapatra Corporation and RSS were also in the list. However, the government could not do this.
Even the task force for framing news media policy in 1992, headed by Narahari Acharya recommended reducing the government’s grip on GP and RSS by flouting shares to private sectors. About the Radio Nepal and NTV, it recommended the government to make them sovereign institutions. No government showed any willingness to flout the shares. Opposite to the task force’s thesis, governments always interfered in these media organizations by appointing directors and other personals, making them loyal only to those who appoint them.
Another task force constituted by the royal government in 2061 v.s. to recommend about the news policy of the state media says, “Government control and political interference make the state media less professional, and less capable to compete with private media. The royal government instead misused these media by disseminating propaganda during the April revolution 2006.
After the April revolution of 2006, the reform of the state media is the demand of people. The parliamentarians even voiced that government should stop interfering these media. Former communication minister Jay Prakash Gupta regretted for not fulfilling his words of privatizing the Gorkhaptra Sasthan in his book Akhatiyar ko Thuna: Mero Samjhana. Workers’ associations of GP are discussing on the models like cooperative, trust etc. The present government has to think over their concerns too.
Political parties in present government never did what they committed to do, and what others recommended them to do. People believe that the government will still commit the same mistake. It is the government’s responsibility to prove what the people believe is wrong. The ball of the reform is in the government’s court. What is important is its unprecedented action, not words.

04 August 2006

Negative Effect of Instant noodles in Nepalese Media.

By Harsha Man Maharjan.

Mainstream Nepali media survive from advertisements. These media never dare to criticize their advertisers.
In Nepal instant noodle ads rule the ad market. And we see no information about the negative effect of these instant noodles there.
Recently Present government placed instant noodles in the category of luxury goods and introduced tax on them. Noodle industries criticized the government action and stop their production. Heath experts and consumer rights activists know that these noodles are unhealthy. People suffer with malnutrition when they take the noodles regularly. This information seldom comes in mainstream media. Opposite to it, once The Himalayan Times and Annapuran Post even devoted its two full pages to eulogize these noodles. It must be Public Relations material. There might be other newspapers and media doing the same which I missed.
Yesterday (3 August, 2006) I was surprised to watch a comedy teleserial on the Kantipur TV, Laina Bhutukai Paryo. Yesterday’s episode has a scene: one father complains that eating a brand of noodle in increased price, his daughter’s face wrinkles. So he says he will announce strike against the people who taxed the noodles. It is ridiculous. It is not the government that wrinkles her face. It is the result of the content of the product. So it seems that the teleserial, commentaries on recent activities, is barking at the wrong tree. The culprit is the noodles’ industry people not the government. The serial does this because it has no guts to criticize its big advertiser.
We can’t think of stopping Instant noodle industry. It is related to livelihood of many people. So what government did is good, we have to dissuade people from having these unhealthy noodles.
Consumer right activists, government owned media and alternative media must aware people about the negative effects of the noodles.

11 June 2006

Ha.. Ha… Changing Gorkhapatra. Where is the change ?

By Harsha Man Maharjan
The Gorkhapatra, granny of Nepali print journalism always served people in power. It was true for Rana regime. No exception for Panchayat or twelve years of constitutional monary. During agitation for the restoration of democracy in 2062 and 2063, it criticized seven party alliances, movement for press freedom of Federation of Nepalese Journalist.
Its tone changed after the king returned sovereignty to people after Janaandolan 2063. Krishna K.C. who used to criticize FNJ and seven party alliance, now writes about press freedom and the need of privatizing the Gorkhapatra Sansthan. He thinks no government can run media in democracy. In his article he even informs that the Gorkhapatra Sansthan is getting nothing from the Government. Instead it is paying huge amount of money to the government.
Yet it seems GP has not changed its loyalty.
Even today it only serves the ministers not people. It is serving other GP(Girija Prasad Koirala). When will it serve the people ?

Why Less Media Coverage of Nepal Education and Book Fair 2006 ?

By Harsha Man Maharjan

Nepal Education and Book Fair has become 10 year. It is the fact that we become matured as our years raise. But it is not so for the Global Exposition and Management Services Pvt. Ltd, the organizer of the fair.
Global gave emphasis to one media house this time. It not only paid Kantipur Publication for the advertisement, but also for advertorials. These advertorials appear to create the environment of the fair before the twelve days of the fair. Only The Himalayan Times got few ads from the British Council. These ads informed about the British Council’s participation in the fair.
This might have cut the Global’s budget on publicity and increases its profit. Kantipur Publication also participated in the fair. But it reduced the fair’s coverage in the other media. Anjan Shrestha of Educational Book Fair worried that only few media covered this event. He brought writers Manjushree Thapa and Narayan Wagle in the fair so that people can meet their favourite writers. This events not only attracted visitors but also got coverage on media. Hope Global will think over this issue in next exhibition.

29 March 2006

Old Questions of Mass Communication and Journalism

Below are the old questions of mass communication and journalism at masters level. I collected them from Ujjwal Acharya, United We Blog and Subharaj Shilpakar.

Journalism I Paper (JMC 501)
(Mass Communication Theories)

Attempt any Three questions from Group A and four from Group B.

Group A (3x20=60) Long Answer Questions
1. Describe the range of mass communication theories in their social, intellectual and historical settings.
2. What do you understand by the Asian Perspective of the Communication Theory? Discuss.
3. There can be a number of different, often competing, media structures within the one and the same national media system. This diversity of media structures can be analyzed and understood on the basis of some principles. What are they? Describe.
4. Describe the distinctive features of media organizations in contradiction to other formal organizations.

Group B (4x10=40) Short Answer Questions
5. Distinguish a dominant paradigm from an alternative paradigm.
6. Discuss the four models of public communication. Clarify the definitions of mass communication.
7. What are the implications of globalization of culture for a country like Nepal?
8. Describe briefly the distinctive features of media economics.
9. What is the 'Spiral of Silence'?
10. Engwall has made significant contribution to the understanding of mass communicator's role in society. Explain succinctly.

Journalism I Paper (JMC 501)
Mass Communication Theories

Group A (3x20=60) Long Answer Questions
1. The models of communication have developed through four stages. What are they? Describe and discuss their relevance to the respective times of their development.
2. Discuss some of the basic theories related to the phenomenon of inter-personal communication.
3. Show an acquaintance with some of the Asian-oriented communication theories. Does the search for Asian perspective on communication theories imply outright rejection of Western-oriented theories?
4. Which are the seven types of theories to explain the relations between media and society? Describe fully.

Group B (4x10=40) Short Answer Questions
5. Distinguish the Chicago School from the Frankfurt School in terms of the media sociology.
6. The performance of the press can be evaluated on the basis of normative theories. Explain.
7. What do you understand by audience activity?
8. 'Content is influenced by media organizational routines.' Explain.
9. Show in a diagrammatic form a typology of media effects in terms of time span and intentionality.
10. What role has been conceived of for communication in development theories? Describe fully.

Journalism I Paper (JMC 501)
Mass Communication Theories

Group A (3x20=60) Long Answer Questions

1. Explain the significance of symbols in the process of structuring human reality.
2. Give an overview of the development of mass communication theories in the 20th century.
3. What are the issues relevant to the media cultural theory? Discuss giving pertinent examples.
4. Describe referring to the relevant models the type of rules, regulations and scrutiny that the media Institutes carry along with them according to their different characteristics.

Group B(4x10=40) Short Answer Questions
5. What is telematic Media?
6. Why Shannon’s Mathematical theory of communication is called the precursor of the Information Theory?
7. Write briefly about the four types of audience of media?
8. What are the approaches to the study of sociology of mass communication?
9. How do you distinguish long-term planned effect of media from their unplanned effect?
10. What is the theory of news diffusion?

Journalism I Paper (JMC 501)
Mass Communication Theories

Group A (3x20=60) Long Answer Questions
1. What are the basic approaches to the study of media theories? Describe in terms of the types of perspectives.
2. Is there any need for Asian approaches to communication? Discuss.
3. The recent social and technological changes have undermined the traditional view of mass media communication, and so, communication scholars have suggested to consider alternative views of the process which would be more representative of new communication process or CMC. There is a set of four such models which sketch the process of telematic communication. Describe them briefly.
4. “Mass communication plays a part in the complex process of socialization especially in societies where the mass media are ubiquitous.” (Charles Wright) Why? Discuss.

Group B(4x10=40) Short Answer Questions
5. What is the main thesis of Democratic-Participant media theory?
6. What do you understand by public interest in mass media?
7. Audiences are formed by the sources at macro and micro levels. How?
8. ‘Media campaign effect’ is identifies as a planned short-term effect, but ‘events outcomes effect’ is an unplanned long-term effect. Why?
9. Distinguish the dominant paradigm from the alternative paradigm for mass communication theory.
10. Does media content reflect social reality or his influenced itself by
media-organizational routines? Discuss briefly.
Journalism II Paper (JMC 502)
(Principles of Journalism)

Attempt any THREE questions from Group ‘A’ and FOUR from group ‘B’

Group A (3x15=45) Long Answer Questions
1. Critically examine the role of news contents in the Nepalese broadcast media.
2. How do you assess the growth of daily newspapers in Nepal?
3. Discuss the principles of media pluralism.
4. Evaluate the code of conduct developed by Press Council (Nepal) for journalists.

Group B (4x7.5=30) Short Answer Questions
5. What are the key principles of journalism?
6. How far have the Nepalese media been able to reach the people? Give examples.
7. Explain the role of newsreels.
8. Discuss the impact of documentary films as an information channel.
9. Examine the functioning of alternative media.
10. Write short notes on any TWO.
a. Vertical ownership b. Documentary films c. Press associations

Journalism II Paper (JMC 502)
(Principles of Journalism)

Group A (3x15=45) Long Answer Questions

1. Discuss the role of news media in democratic participation of people.
2. Examine the financial investment climate for media houses in Nepal after 1990.
3. How do you assess the application of the basic principles of journalism in the Nepalese media?
4. Why is radio the most relevant media for Nepal?

Group B (4x7.5=30) Short Answer Questions
5. Explain media values in principle and practice.
6. What are the main stages of journalism’s growth in Nepal?
7. Discuss the impact of media on society.
8. How does media contribute to informing the public accuracy and fairly?
9. Examine the practice of development journalism in Nepal, with emphasis on illustrations and graphics.
10. Write short notes on any Two:
a. Cross-ownership b. Gate-keepers c. Newsreels.

Journalism II Paper (JMC 502)
(Principles of Journalism)

Group A (3x15=45) Long Answer Questions

1. Discuss the factors that led to the late arrival of journalism in Nepal.
2. What are the main theories of modern journalism?
3. How has the restoration of multi-party democracy affected the growth and development of various news media in Nepal?
4. How do you assess the application of ‘ABC of journalism’ in the Nepalese media?

Group B (4x7.5=30) Short Answer Questions
5. Discuss the various stages of development of journalism in the world with special reference to Nepal.
6. What is development journalism?
7. Why is monopoly in media against the spirit of democracy? Give examples.
8. List and elaborate the various broadcast media and their presence in Nepal.
9. Examine the use and abuse of illustrations in news magazines.
10. Write short notes on any two:
a. Documentary Films. b. New sells in Nepal. c. Gate-keeping.

Journalism II Paper (JMC 502)
(Principles of Journalism)

Group A (3x15=45) Long Answer Questions
1. Discuss media freedom, with special focus on licentiousness versus social responsibility.
2. How do you take the good ethical decisions? Describe in the light of ethical principles of journalism.
3. What is the dilemma of objectivity and subjectivity in journalism?
4. Why the use of photographs, graphics and other illustrative materials is given priority in a magazine?

Group B (4x7.5=30) Short Answer Questions
5. Media watch mechanism in Nepal.
6. Inclusiveness in media functioning and service.
7. What is gate-keeping and how it works in media?
8. Community and commercial radio.
9. Describe various types of lenses and their uses.
10. What is journalistic fairness?
Journalism III Paper (JMC 503)
(History of Journalism and Mass Communication)

Attempt any THREE questions from Group ‘A’ and FOUR from group ‘B’

Group A (3x20=60) Long Answer Questions
1. Describe the role of local and community media in Nepal vis-à-vis the expansion of national news media with emphasis on their historical perspective.
2. What influence modern technologies are having on the future of publications industry from global historical perspective? Explain.
3. What do you understand by the term globalization of information? Describe it in the context of the emergence of global newspapers and television media.
4. Describe the scope and impact of magazine journalism in modern times.

Group B (4x10=40) Short Answer Questions
5. Write short notes on Hiereographics, frequency modulation, Cable TV, byte, cross media ownership.
6. Narrate briefly the impact of modern technologies on the development of book industry.
7. The constitution of Nepal provides specific guarantees to the freedom of the press. Discuss with emphasis on the history of development press freedom in Nepal.
8. Describe briefly the innovations in printing and its impact on the modernization of Nepalese newspaper industry.
9. Write briefly on the emergence of electronic newspapers in recent times.
10. What is Internet and what role it plays in the dissemination of information.

Journalism III Paper (JMC 503)
History of Journalism and Mass Communication

Group A (3x20=60) Long Answer Questions
1. “The newspaper is at once a private enterprise struggling in a highly competitive economy and a quasi-public institution serving the needs of all citizens.” In the light of Ernest C Hynds’ remarks, explain in historical perspective how the social service role is reconciled with the compulsions of profit making in a publication enterprise?
2. Describe the evolution of books as a medium of communication and its impact on shaping modern societies.
3. Newspapers are waging a losing battle against the powerful electronic media. Critically examine the transition faced by world newspaper industry in an electronic era and narrate the changes they are undergoing in order to stay ahead in business.
4. Present a critical appraisal of the crisis faced by magazine publications in Nepal. Narrate their strength as well as weaknesses vis-à-vis the growing influence of broad-sheet daily newspaper.

Group B (4x10=40) Short Answer Questions
5. What is ‘Sanad’? Explain how it is related with the newspaper history of Nepal.
6. Write a note on the early form of writings during the beginning of early civilization.
7. Write short notes on the following:
Chiranjibi Poudyal, Sudha Sagar, Partisan Press, Tabloids and Morgue
8. How do you define copyrights as distinct from intellectual property rights?
9. Write a note on the emergence of FM radio stations in Nepal.
10. What do you know about digital communication? Explain with examples.

Journalism III Paper (JMC 503)
History of Journalism and Mass Communication

Group A (3x20=60) Long Answer Questions
1. Describe the impact of communication revolution on the development of book industry with particular reference to Nepal.
2. Give a critical appraisal of the role of mass media as ‘gate-keepers’ of the society in the light of technological advancements.
3. Write an essay on the condition of news magazines and periodicals in Nepal as against the expansion of other media.
4. “Facts are sacred, comments are free.” Explain this maxim in the light of determination of ethical standards of news media.

Group B (4x10=40) Short Answer Questions
5. Narrate the provision of the constitution of Nepal that deals with Right to Information of citizens and Right to privacy.
6. Describe briefly the transformation of printing from letter press to computer technology.
7. Write short notes on:
a. syndicates b. two-step flow of communication c. wire services d. yellow journalism e. censorship.
8. Narrate the role news media can play in the containment of conflicts in South media.
9. What do you understand by the term “public access to information?” How can media be made effective instruments for enhancing public access?
10. Describe some of the problems faced by newspaper industry in Nepal vis-à-vis stiff competition from electronic media.

Journalism III Paper (JMC 503)
History of Journalism and Mass Communication

Group A (3x20=60) Long Answer Questions
1. Discuss the history and development of FM Radio ion Nepal.
2. Discuss the history of printing in Nepal and development of print media (including book publishing), radio and television.
3. Write an essay on press freedoms in Nepal with specific references to constitutional and legal provisions and their implementation.
4. Describe the growth and development of media in Nepal after the restoration of democracy in Nepal in April 1990.

Group B (4x10=40) Short Answer Questions
5. Discuss the history and growth of television in Nepal.
6. ‘The development of FM Radio in Nepal is unique, especially in terms of the various institutional/organizational arrangements’. Discuss.
7. Critically analyze the statement, “The Internet may be the most democratic of all communication media but it may take a long time for developing countries to benefit from its use.” Why?
8. Discuss censorship in Nepal, with references to existing legal provisions and practice.
9. Discuss briefly the four distinct phases of the development of the newspaper in India starting with period beginning 1818 to 1947, when it became independent.
10. Write short notes on any TWO of the following:
a. The history of book publishing. b. The ‘penny paper/press’ and yellow journalism. c. The weekly Gorkhaptra
Journalism IV Paper (JMC 504)
Research Methodology

Attempt any THREE questions from Group ‘A’ and FOUR from group ‘B’. Question no. 4 is compulsory.

Group A (3x20=60) Long Answer Questions

1. What is scientific social research? Explain the characteristics of a good research design.
2. Discuss the history of the development of the mass media research in Nepal with reference to the development urban-industrial society.
3. Describe with illustrations various types of communication research and their relevance for a country like Nepal.
4. Calculate the standard deviation about a media organizations variance in respect the age of reporters.

Group B (4x10=40) Short Answer Questions
5. Critically analyze the explanatory studies and its importance in social research.
6. What do you understand by experimental and survey research?
7. Why sampling method may not be relevant in the communication effects research?
8. Explain the characteristics of the media support system research.
9. Write short notes on:
a. Questionnaires b. Didactical and methodological aids-meta plan
c. Case study method d. Skewness
10. Explain the relevancy of the histogram in the media research.

Journalism IV Paper (JMC 504)
Research Methodology, 2060

Group A (3x20=60) Long Answer Questions
1. Research can help better understand large social trends. Analyze whether you agree or disagree with the statement. Explain the elements of a sound research design.
2. Discuss the history of the development of the mass media research in Nepal with reference where relevant to the development of urban-industrial society in the west.
3. Discuss at least three data collection techniques used in social research and describe the situations where you would employ those techniques.
4. Calculate quartile deviation from the following data and analyze the impact.
Age of editors
No of editors

Group B (4x10=40) Short Answer Questions
5. Discuss sampling and its importance in the social research.
6. Analyze the long-term influence of the exposure to mass media exposure.
7. Write short notes on:
a. Research hypothesis
b. Content Analysis
c. Key Informant Interviews
d. Focus Group Discussion
8. What is survey? Discuss the characteristics of a good questionnaire.
9. What do you understand from the terms 'Social Construction of Meaning'?
10. What is the difference between regression and co-relation?

Journalism IV Paper (JMC 504)
Research Methodology

Group A (3x20=60) Long Answer Questions

1. Why is applied research more important? How is media research related to this system.
2. Discuss the differences between theory and facts in research.
3. Define various types of sampling in research design. Why is random sampling
more practical to media research?
4. Calculate the standard deviation from the following age group of reporters
No. of editors
Age of editors
Below 20
Above 45

Group B (4x10=40) Short Answer Questions
5. Define and discuss survey method. Give examples.
6. What is content analysis?
7. Explain the techniques of data collection in research process.
8. What is observation method? Explain how using questionnaires is research and observation differ.
9. Why is a hypothesis important in research?
10. Discuss the characteristics of a good research interview.

Journalism IV Paper (JMC 504)
Research Methodology

Group A (3x20=60) Long Answer Questions

1. What is a good research design? Explain with examples.
2. What are the differences between content analysis and public opinion research?
3. Discuss the problem of media and journalism research in Nepal?
4. Reporters o f different ages are working at a broadsheet daily. Rearrange, calculate and analyze the standard deviation from the following age group of the reporters
No. of reporters
Age of reporters
Below 15
60 to above

Group B (4x10=40) Short Answer Questions
5. Discuss the use of survey method in media studies.
6. What is participatory research? Discuss in brief.
7. Explain the techniques of data collection.
8. What is case study method? Discuss the characteristics of good interview.
9. Explain the validity and reliability of research.
10. What are the differences between regression and correlation?

Journalism V Paper (JMC 505)
Global System and International Journalism

Attempt any THREE questions from Group ‘A’ and FOUR from group ‘B’

Group A (3x20=60) Long Answer Questions
1. What are the principles of developing journalism? What differentiates it from western journalism?
2. Disscuss the advantages, challenges and dangers of the Internet. What is the relation between traditional media and the Internet?
3. Is it necessary to deal with imbalance of international news flow? Discuss how journalists in South Asian countries can cope with it.
4. What are the priorities in selecting international news by media organizations?

Group B (4x10=40) Short Answer Questions
5. Describe the variety of forms of global mass communication.
6. What kind of services DR agency provides to a country, which sings a contract with it?
7. Are there any printed media, which can be called international? Why have some national newspapers international impacts despite sometimes limited circulation? Give an example.
8. Describe attempts to control free flow of news.
9. Write about media system of India or Pakistan or Sri Lanka.
10. Discuss any one of the three main news agencies in global communication.

Journalism V Paper (JMC 505)
Global System and International Journalism

Group A (3x20=60) Long Answer Questions
1. Explain the origins of the idea of New World Information Order (NWIO). What are the functions of communication according to McBride Commission Report?
2. What are the limitations for journalists dealing with foreign news in developing countries? Discuss.
3. Write about some common features of media systems in SAARC countries.
4. What is the tendency in approach to international news by news organizations?

Group B (4x10=40) Short Answer Questions
5. Describe how modern technologies are changing traditional media.
6. What invention opened developing countries on global channels? What was the impact of this invention?
7. Describe one international radio service.
8. What do you understand by the saying that international news can have boomerang effect?
9. Discuss state-owned broadcast media beaming programmes in foreign languages.
10. What are the characteristics of major international news agencies?

Journalism V Paper (JMC 505)
Global System and International Journalism

Group A (3x20=60) Long Answer Questions
1. Explain what CBC-periphery theory describes. Elaborate what consequence it has on international flow of information.
2. What are the limitations of different media in developing countries? Which medium is the most
3. Write about satellite TV in South Asia and discuss channels, popularity and its cultural impact.
4. Is there any scope of the control of flow of news about one’s own country abroad? Explain how it might be done.

Group B (4x10=40) Short Answer Questions
5. What are the predictions for the future of global communication?
6. What causes deformation of picture of reality given by media in international news?
7. Describe one global TV channel.
8. What does the ‘globalization of media mean’?
9. Compare two media systems in any two South Asian countries.
10. Write about international TV news agencies and their impact on international news. Give an example.

Journalism V Paper (JMC 505)
Global System and International Journalism

Group A (3x20=60) Long Answer Questions
1. Do you agree that the Nepali press has been changing over years under the influence of the changing tendencies in foreign printed media? Justify your opinion and describe the relation between Nepali and foreign press.
2. How the political environment has interacted with the situation of media in India. Include the issues of accessibility, press freedom, status of journalists.
3. Is it possible to report bare facts? Is the journalist’s objectivism possible or is it only a myth? Where the news ends and the manipulation starts?
4. How the use of satellites for commercial broadcast changed international communities? What is the role of satellite TV channels and TV wholesales? Why it is said that television is in the centre of international communication. Discuss these issues and show your acquaintances with at least one international or regional TV network or channels.

Group B (4x10=40) Short Answer Questions
5. What are the provisions and restrictions of freedom of expression in South Asian countries?
6. Give the features of international radio-broadcasters and describe one radio station in detail.
7. Foreign journalists in South Asia in relation with local laws and authorities. What are the weak and strong points of their coverage?
8. What are the directions of news flow in contemporary world?
9. Describe principles of international advertising. Give an example of an international media campaign.
10. What is the New World Information and Communication Order? What institutions and people were involved in establishing it? What were the effects of establishing NWICO?

23 March 2006

Question of Objective Journalism in Nepali Media by Harsha Man Maharjan

On 18 March Minister of State for Information and Communications Shrish Shumsher Rana urged journalists to disseminate objective news. He was speaking at a program organized by Federation of Nationalist Journalists (FENAJ), Sunsari in Dharan. He even requested journalists to give priority to the nation, nationality and the institution of crown.

I think his two statements don’t match with each other. Being objective is to report without being influence by personal feelings or opinion. But they become biased by
giving priority to the nation, nationality and the institution of crown.

I have no faith in objective journalism. No journalist can be totally objective in journalism. I was taught in early days of my PCL in Ratna Rajya Campus that journalist should do objective journalism. In those days I was never taught about the constraints of media. Neither did I know about the concept of gate-keeping. Today I know the constraints of media: Owner’s interest, advertiser’s interest and others (any body interested in the issue pls search for Edward Herman and Noam Chomsky’s article on Propaganda Model and other’s articles on the same issue). Today I don’t believe that media is totally free and fair.

Quite opposite to Rana, I think objective journalism is impossible. Before news come to media, they go through a process. First journalists choose the topic and think over what to and what not to write. From large information they choose little information. Even editors cuts and add information in the news according to news value and time or space available to media. Audiences get news after they passes from a long road of selections. So they contain biases and interest of journalists, editors. Sometimes advertisers even media owners interfere in the production of news.

In Nepal, the minister Rana thinks that objectivity comes after journalists become loyal to monarchy. For him, what government-owned media (actually they are not) like Gorkhaptra, The Rising Nepal, Radio Nepal, Nepal Television does is objective journalism. Actually these media were never loyal to their audiences. They always gave priority to few people who captured state power. And they are doing same after February 1 2005, Royal Coup. They are in reality only doing Gorkhaptrakarita, not Patrakarita.
About me and my interest in Nepali Media.

Today I am going to write about me. I am a student of journalism and mass communication. I worked as a reporter for two years for Newari weekly Lakas in Kirtipur. I did internship in The Rising Nepal (TRN) for four months. I have worked in other Nepali weekly Kiritpur Darpan in Kirtipur for one year.

I leaned about many things while I worked in The Rising Nepal. One of them was about rewriting. I had read in books on writing that rewriting is only way to succeed in writing. Sunil KC, an editor of TRN made me to rewrite my news. And I did. I found what I read in the books was correct. My news became clearer and direct. Editors in other papers that I worked never told me to do this.
I am interested in discussing media issues in Nepali. I will do this in this blog. I welcome your comments.

13 March 2006

Today is my first day of blogging.
I am harsha. Student of mass communication and journalism.