31 May 2007

Why Kantipur Publication Rejected Advertisement of Rakta Kunda of Worth Rs. 62,000.00?

By Harsha Man Maharjan

Rakta Kunda is a novel which depicts Nepalese Royal family in negative way. Many people can’t say whether the fact it presented is accurate or not.

Khagendra Bhattarai, owner of Pairavi Book is sole distributor of the book. He informed me that the book has been published in 50,000 nos. It is Khagendra dai who informed me on 11 Magh 2063(25 Jan 2007) that he was publishing a color advertisement of the book in the front page of next day’s Kantipur. He requested me to read the ad. He was publishing the ad of Rs. 62,000.00 through Spectrum Advertising and Media consultant. Next day the ad did not appear in the newspaper. I thought some thing might have happened.

When I met Khagendra dai after few months I asked about the ad. I could not believe what he told me. On 11 Magh he was sure of the ad till 9 pm. At 9 pm Marketing Department of Kantipur Publication informed Bhattaria and ad agency that management had decided not to run the ad. Bhattari still has the returned cheque.

What is the reason behind this? Did the publication see the threat of law suit from royal family? Actually the royal family even condemned the book publicly. Now question arises. Is publication responsible for each and every ad it publishes? I think advertisers are legally responsible for ads.

I know management can stop some materials from publishing if it thinks that they are harmful for the publication. But Rakta Kunda’s case is different. I know there are few community FM radio stations which have guidelines for choosing ads. I have never heard this kind of incident before. Isn’t this interference of management in the business of publication?
Before this, even in the case of a business man Rasendra Bhattarai, I think there was pressure from management to provide unnecessary publicity to the business man. Former editor of Kantipur, Yuba Raj Ghimire tendered his resignation due to this behaviour of management. He even wrote an article on this issue in magazine, Samaya.

Source of photo: http://www.monikaa.uni.cc/forum/index.php?topic=16.msg58

30 May 2007

No advertorial this time

By Harsha Man Maharjan

Have you notice an advertisement about the eleventh Nepal Education & Book Fair 2007 in Kantipur daily? This is a regular program of Global Exposition & Management Services (P) Ltd. (GEMS) is organizing this event.

Last year it published advertorials many days before the event. This year it is not doing this. Santosh Chhetri of GEMS told me that last year book shops about which he could not provide advertorials were not happy with him. Ruskin Bond, writer is inaugurating the event. The book exhibition will begin from 1-9 June 2007.

Pls visit my last year's posting on the book fair.


More on Ruskin Bond:


29 May 2007

MA II year(Mass Communication and Journalism) questions of Tribhuwan University, Nepal

Below are old questions Shubraj Shilpakar provided me.

Tribhuvan University
Master Level/II Year/ Humanities Full Marks: 100
Nepalese Media System and Journalism (JMC. 515)
Group "A"
(Long- answer Questions
1. Describe the national and international conditions in which print , audio and audio–visual media have emerged in Nepal.
2. What are the objectives of National Communication Policy, 2049 B.S. ? Why policy interventions does it make achieve these objectives?
3. Give a brief account of media regulation system in Nepal. How do you evaluate the implementation aspects of Nepalese media regulations?
4. "Nepal has made big achievements in community radio broadcasting." Do you agree?
Group "B"
5. How do production houses and broadcasting stations differ from each other?
6. What are the different kinds of broadcasting services functioning in Nepal?
7. What is the role of private sector in the development of films in Nepal?
8. Explain the present status of Right to Information in Nepal.
9. Assess the relevance of the long-term Communication Policy, 2059B.S.
10. Why has foreign investment in media been a topical issue in Nepal?

Tribhuvan University
Master Level/II Year/ Humanities Full Marks: 100
Nepalese Media System and Journalism (JMC. 515)
Group "A"
(Long- answer Questions
1. Describe the major components of the long term communication policy of Nepal, 2059 B.S. How do you look at the relevance of this policy in comparison with previous policy (2049) ?
2. What are the basic components of a media system and how are they functioning in Nepal ?
3. Hoe do you evaluate the financial conditions of Nepalese broadsheet dailies? Compare this with the financial status of weekly newspapers.
4. Write a brief outline of the film industry development in Nepal. Which period is called the 'golden age 'of Nepali cinema and why?

Group "B"
(Short –answer Questions)
5. Why is Radio Sagarmatha described as a pioneering broadcasting orgation not only in Nepal, but in whole South Asia?
6. How should a National Broadcasting Authority function?
7. Describe the debate over ownership control in Nepalese media industry.
8. Can we consider the "Sanad" of B.S. 1958 as an early Nepalese media policy document?
9. Describe the status of book publishing in Nepal.
10. Discuss the strengths and Weaknesses of Journalists Code of Conduct, 2060 B.S.
Tribhuvan University
Master Level/II Year/ Humanities Full Marks: 100
Nepalese Media System and Journalism (JMC. 515)

Group "A"
(Long- answer Questions)
1. What are your observations about market expansion of mass media in Nepal after 1990? Who are the new players of this period?
2. Give brief account of the situation when radio in Nepal has emerged and developed.
3. Describe advertisement policies being practical in the country. Give your suggestion to improve them.
4. What are the basic differences between the Nepalese legal system governing media before and after 1990?

Group "B"
(Short –answer Questions)
5. What kind of priority is given to media sector in the government planning? Give brief answer referring to the 10th Five –Year Plan.
6. 'Communication for development!' What this slogan symbolizes in the course of Nepalese media development.
7. Write about the influence of politics in Nepalese media.
8. Give a brief historical account of Book publishing in Nepal.
9. What is the major focus and characteristics of most of the feature services in Nepal?
10. Why is it believed that the situation of Nepalese films is declining these days?

Tribhuvan University
Master Level/II Year/ Humanities Full Marks: 80
Comparative Press Laws and Media System (JMC.511)
1. Differentiate media system between USA and UK. How are the media system characterized with the media in the SAARC region?
2. Describe the theories of the press laws. Why are the press laws guided from conventional theories? Explain with suitable examples.
3. What provisions for press laws are depicted from western countries to the developing countries? Describe the basis of press freedom and censorship.
4. What is the concept of Press Council in general? Explain the structure and functions of press council with reference to Nepal.
5. Explain media and legal system in Nepal.
6. Why are libel and contempt of court more sensitive in the media environment? Explain briefly.
7. Define journalistic privileges and their significance.
8. Describe the problem of practices of privacy and liability of physical harm.
9. Describe the Asian media system and the press.
10. Explain the structural and organizational perspectives of news gathering system.

Tribhuvan University
Master Level/II Year/ Humanities Full Marks: 80
Comparative Press Laws and Media System (JMC.511)
Group "A"
(Long- answer Questions)
1. Discuss modern theories of press law and explain how these theories influence different press laws.
2. Differentiate the press laws of UK and those of South ASEAN countries.
3. What are the different between legal provisions and ethical regulations of press ? Explain.
4. Critically analyze the concept of Press Council system with references to Nepal.

(Short- answer Questions)
5. Explain how the laws of libel and of copyright affect the media in Nepal.
6. What are the provision of Defamation Act of India and UK? Give examples.
7. Compare and contrast the laws concerning privacy and liability for physical harms. Discuss.
8. What are the major problems that journalists face while gathering news? Discuss with structural and organizational perspective.
9. Why is contempt of court more sensitive and emotional in the media field? Explain with examples.
10. Explain 'press freedom and censorship are two sides of coin.'

Development Communication and Journalism (JMC.517)

Group "A"
1. How do the exemplars of the dominant paradigm conceptulise the role of communication for development? Describe.
2. The importance of the critical approach to communication research, particularly in the Asia cannot be overstated because this approach can be productive in stimulating social change in a structural sense. Why?
3. Describe the new communication function of participatory media in the context of another development strategy.
4. How was the role of development communication conceptualized in the Nepalese economic development plans over the last fifty years. Discuss.

Group "B"

5. What recommendations were made by the International Commission for the study of communication problems in regard to new communication policies relevant to level study?
6. Distinguish the type of development studies known as macro societal level study from the micro level study.
7. What do you understand by Asian Perspective on Communication Theory?
8. What is the development of underdevelopment?
9. Describe with a diagram Learner's model of Development Communication.
10. What are the main approaches to Development Communication?

Development Communication and Journalism (JMC.517)

Group "A"
(Long- answer Questions)
1. Examine the fatal flaws in communication approach to modernization theory.
2. Describe the role of the Internet in rural development.
3. What are the issues raised by an ethical perspective of development communication? Discuss with special references to Nepali cases.
4. What are the challenges facing Nepalese journalists who are practicing environment al journalism at the community media level? Discuss.

Group "B"
(Short - answer Questions)
5. National Planning Commission of Nepal and development communication.
6. Development communication in the empowerment framework.
7. The folk media in development communication.
8. ACB model of Westley and MacLean.
9. Alternative perspectives on development.
10. Nepali television reporting o rural development in Nepal.

International and Inter-Cultural Communication and Media (JMC.506)
Group "A" 3×20=60
(Long- answer Questions)
1. Discuss theoretical approaches to international communication in the past and present. Describe in detail one of theories and make a short description of four of the remaining theories.
2. Define culture and explain intercultural communication, with emphasis on intercultural communication effectiveness. List and explain personal and objective factors important for intercultural communication (facilitating it of making it more difficult).
3. Does global culture really exist? Do media and to creation of global culture?
4. The approaches to communication and media within UN structure (UN and its agencies, i.e. UNESCO, ITU, WTO, etc) have been changing in the course of history. Describe different stands taken by the organization and its agencies. Show your acquaintance wit documents (with these institutions), which have had consequences for international communication


5. Describe the main ideas and postulates of Information Society. How did the idea originate and which institutions are currently involved in fostering it ?
6. Write about two non-governmental international organizations, which actions are either directly connected with media, or have some influence on international media.
7. In the international context , what do alternative media mean? How are they different from 'mainstream media'?
8. How should new technologies be introduced in developing countries? What are dangers and advantages of new technologies in developing countries?
9. What factors make the reception of foreign media contents and audience attitude to these contents positive? What factors create hostile environment for reception of foreign media texts?
10. How have technologies facilitated the formation of multimedia, international corporations? Describe one such company.

International and Inter-Cultural Communication and Media (JMC.506)
Group "A" 3×20=60
(Long- answer Questions)
1. Why do people from different cultures want to communicate? Do you think such communication is possible? How can this be made easier?
2. Can we call eastern cultures traditional? Which are the distinctive characteristics of traditional cultures ? How do cultures vary with one another in conceptualizing time and space, in communication patterns and collective or individual approach to members of the society?
3. What does 'liberalization in communication and media markets' mean? What are the implications of international media markets deregulation and what are the consequences for international communication of rapid expansion of new technologies?
4. Discuss different forms of internationalization and localization in media international market. What are their relations to the culture(s)?

5. What are national stereotypes? What role do they play in the international communication?
6. Explain the ideas of free flow of information and dependency theory. (including structural dependency).
7. What are the relations between intercultural and international communication?
8. Depict any international intergovernmental organization, which influences the media at international and national level.
9. How are some indigenous media organizations in developing countries forced to transform themselves because of the presence (and operation) of foreign media Analyze some examples.
10. Why does a good understanding of a foreign language alone not be enough for effective intercultural understanding?

International and Inter-Cultural Communication and Media (JMC.506)
Group "A" 3×20=60
(Long- answer Questions)

1. What are the similarities between intercultural and international communications? How do you understand intercultural communication in Nepali context?
2. What are the main differences between western and non-western cultures? How do the patterns of thinking and communicating differ?
3. Which of the UN agencies are crucial for international communication and in what way?
4. Is globalization in media a reality of myth? Justify your opinion. What are the indicators, characteristics and effect of globalization? What is the counter-force to globalization?
Group "B"
(Long- answer Questions) 4×10=40
5. How should the new technologies be introduced into traditional societies?
6. By 1994, CNN, BBC became significant players in the arena of international communication. Why?
7. Influence of the new technology on inter-cultural communication process. Explain.
8. What could be the stumbling blocks in intercultural communication?
9. What role does caste system plays in communication in Nepali society?
10. Do the foreign media content and formats influence Nepali culture; the contents received directly trough contact with foreign media and indirectly trough Nepali media implementing them?

28 May 2007

Legal Eyes on Working Journalists Act

By Harsha Man Maharjan

I believe that people who have not studied journalism from Proficiency Level have rights to study Journalism and Mass Communication in Masters Level. This is happening in two colleges in Nepal: Kantipur City College and College of Mass Communication and Journalism. It is not happening in R R College.

I think specialists need to think over Nepali journalism and mass communication. Here I am giving an example of Working Journalists Act 2051 v.s.(1995) Ramesh Badal is a lawyer having specialization in Labour issues. His interpretation of the genesis of Working Journalist Act of Nepal was new to me. I studied the act minutely many times but I could not discern the issues as he did. He was speaking in a media discussion series organized by Martin Chautari on 24 May 2007. Its topic was Issues Related to Working Journalists in Electronic Media.

He thinks it was a blunder of Nepali journalism sector to deny to entertain Labour Act in 1990s. At that time in Nepal trade unionism was only in industries, factories and hotels. Journalists went for Working Journalists Act as in India to differ themselves from muscle power using workers.

According to Badal there is a provision of entertaining Industrial Dispute Act in Indian act related to working journalists which Nepali act lacks.
Actually media owners framed Nepali Working Journalists Act. And the act came in favour of media owner.

These owners included a clause of “journalists in contract”. This provision became weapons to exploit journalists. Nepali journalism sector in infant age at that time and there was majority of journalists who even see management.
So the demand for its amendments came in later years. Some even demand to annul the act.

Government has brought a bill related to amendments in the act. It covers all journalists: print, radio, tv and online. The bill provides equal facilities even to journalists in contract.

Yet Badal is not satisfied with the amendments. He thinks all issues related to working journalists are to be addressed through labour department and labour court. This is not clear in the amendments. He still sees hesitation in journalism sector to go through labour act.

27 May 2007

Political Appointments in Media and Ill Health of Gorkhapatra Sasthan.

Harsha Man Maharjan

There is a rumor going on in the town these days about the Gorkhapatra Sasthan(G.S.): It is on the verge of collapse. A friend in my college informed me that the Sasthan lacks news print, and Workers related to CPN (Maoist) are stopping Pandit from entring the Sasthan.

Its director, Tej Prakash Pundit is on leave for few weeks. Former Communication Minister Dilendra Badu appointed Pundit in the post. Badu is related to Nepali Congress. Now Krishna Bahadur Mohara is Communication Minister. And he has no good relation with Pandit.

Now it is time to think about the political appointment in government-owned media houses. Usually these are the big posts and they get change as soon as there is a change in the government. On the one side we are saying that government should provide independence to these media institutions. On the other side we are seeing political appointments. I have not figure about way out this. Only I know is government should not interfere in these media institutions.

08 May 2007

Timid Kantipur

By Harsha Man Maharjan

On 26 April 2007 (16 Baisakh 2064 v.s ), Kantipur, a Nepali broadsheet daily did a scoop on Rayamajhi Ayog. It has byline by Bal Krishna Basnet. He got Rayamajhi Commission’s report form a source. The government has kept this report secret after members of the commission submitted the report.

On that day I praised Kantipur for the scoop. I think every Nepali has right to know what is written in the commission’s report. It is a public property. So as the government was not making it public, I think it is kantipur’s responsibility to publish the report. I hoped that kantipur will not lag behind on this matter. What I remembered on that day was Pentagon papers of America. American government kept secret Pentagon papers related to its involvement in Vietnam War Few newspapers got the papers. When they published the papers in different parts the government ordered to stop publishing the papers and the case went to court. And the court gave verdict on the favour of newspapers.

That’s why I hoped that Kantipur would publish the report next day. I was waiting the paper next day with bated breath. What the paper had was only an editorial on the report of Rayamajhi Commission.
I waited for another day. There was no commission’s report. So in the evening I called Katipur’s editor, Narayan Wagle in his mobile phone to know about the issue. No one responded me. Next I tried in Guna Raj Luintel’s mobile. He was in a program and with out knowing my concern he told me to contact him after an hour. At last I called at Kantipur publication and talked with my colleague, Lekh Nath Pandey. He informed me that Kantipur only got part two of the report and they were thinking about publishing it.

I think still today Kantipur is thinking about issue and it is showing no courage to publish this commission’s report. Isn’t it Kantipur’s duty to publish the report?